Latest updates on WP6

 

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As an initial part of the activities of experimental tests on engines and burners, being part of the tasks in the WP6 (Industrial scale-up), UPM have begun to plan and prepare the test methodology, incuding the quantity and the origin of the butanol to be used in such tests. On the other hand, preliminary tests have been made on CFR engine (variable compression ratio engine) in order to check its behavior and detect trend between using or non-using butanol. Lastly, the supply of butanol and the engines (diesel and spark ignition engines) are being managed.

As part of the WP6, UNIZAR is involved in the study of the pyrolysis and the oxidation of the four differentbutanol isomers, under a wide range of experimental conditions. Experimental results obtained will be used to develop a kinetic model, which allows to describe the processes studied. Additionally, the soot obtained in pyrolysis experiments will be analyzed to determine its toxicity in cooperation with UNINA.

Latest updates on WP5

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Since the start of the project, TEAGASC has investigated novel green and environmentally friendly extraction technologies to obtain valuable components from food wastes and their fermentation by-products for their valorisation. This task, under the WP5 (Valorisation of high value by-products), has been conducted in close collaboration with WP1. Extractions assisted by microwave, power ultrasound, enzyme, ultra-Turrax, or high pressure technology and their combination were employed. Much higher yield was obtained under the optimal extraction conditions than under conventional extraction conditions and qualities of the extraction products were evaluated.

Latest updates on WP4

 

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Under the WP4 (Catalytic convertion of pure ethanol into butanol with an heterogeneous structured catalystic), activities related to the catalytic valorisation of ethanol to 1-butanol have been implemented by IRC-CNR. Bio-ethanol can be catalytically converted into butanol through alcohol dimerization called Guerbet reaction. Basic sites are essential to get Guerbet coupling of alcohol and addition of a metal function gives better dehydrogenation/hydrogenation properties. Powder γ-Al2O3, hydroxyapatite and MgO have been synthesized according to different techniques to obtain high surface area materials. Ruthenium or Nickel have been dispersed on the supports. Textural, acid and basic properties of the three supports and redox properties of the metals have been characterized in order to optimize the catalyst formulation. Ru/MgO and Ni/MgO provided good butanol yields and are the candidates for the preparation of structured catalysts for operation in the pilot-scale rig.
Simultaneously, BGU has been working on two alternative catalytic routes:
i) Catalytic conversion of ethanol-water mixtures produced by waste biomass fermentation to butanol included conversion of ethanol-water mixtures to butylene that further reacts with water yielding butanol.
ii) Catalytic conversion of ethanol-water and aceton-butanol-ethanol (ABE) – water mixtures produced by waste biomass fermentation into biogasoline and hydrocarbon biofuels components boiling out in the temperature range of 30 – 300oC.
In both cases, catalytic materials have been developed and process conditions have been validated.